Na 18-tom ECSS kongresu (European College of Sport Science) Antidoping agencija Republike Srbije je prezentovala svoja dva rada iz oblasti dopinga. Iako je ovaj kongres posvećen sportskim naukama, radovi o dopingu su retki i još uvek se ovoj temi ne posvećuje dovoljno pažnje. Predstavnici ADAS-a su bili među retkim kolegama iz antidoping organizacija koji su prikazali aktuelna istraživanja na mnogobrojnim sesijama ECSS kongresa.
Prvi rad pod nazivom “Statistical data analysis of anti-doping agency of serbia in last 7 years” je prikaz sedmogodišnjeg iskustva ADAS kroz statističku analizu.
ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA OF THE ANTI-DOPING AGENCY OF REPUBLIC OF SERBIA IN PERIOD FROM 2006 TO 2012
Vukasinovic, V.M. 1, Dikic, N. 1, Andjelkovic, M. 1, Antic, T. 1,
1Anti-doping agency of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Anti-doping Agency of Serbia (ADAS) was founded in 2005. After ratification of the UNESCO International convention against doping in sport, complete anti-doping regulations in Republic of Serbia are in line with World Anti-Doping Code and ADAS is “Code Compliant“ with 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. The results of ADAS work showed importance of continuing the fight against doping in sport.
In this cross sectional study, we analyzed official statistical data from ADAS for last 7 years, from 2006 to 2012. We evaluated the number of conducted doping controls (in and out of competition), total number of adverse analytical findings (AAF), prohibited substances used as doping and, in the end, in which sports doping was present the most.
Basic statistic showed that for the last 7 years, from 2006 to 2012, we performed in total 3,982 doping controls. Total number of AAFs in this period was 48, while in the same period there had been 3 other Anti-doping rule violations. During this period there was 4.03% of AAFs which is two times more compared to world statistics for the same period of time. In 2011 and 2012 that percentage was 1.75% which is in line with world statistics for these years. We tested athletes in 50 different sports and there were AAFs in 21 of them. First 5 sports by AAF are: wrestling (13%), body building (13%), boxing (11%), handball (11%) and athletics (6%). For the last 7 years 67 different prohibited substances were used as doping by athletes and in 13 cases athletes used more than 1 of prohibited substances. In addition, six different groups of prohibited substances were used: S1.anabolic agents (50%), S8. cannabinoids (16.67%), S5. diuretics and other masking agents (16.67%), S6. stimulants (13.64%), S3. beta 2 agonists (1.52%) and P2. beta blockers (1.52%).
Despite increase in number of doping controls, Serbia still performs two times less doping controls comparing with countries with similar number of inhabitants, economic and sports potential. In 2006 most of sport workers in Serbia thought of doping as something which is not significant problem in this country. During this period ADAS showed that doping is significant problem in Serbian sport which has been presented by number of AAFs. Thanks to systematic approach to this problem and continues education we finished 2012 with 7 times less numbers of AAFs. The challenge of developing a rigorous global Anti-doping program, as well as Athlete Outreach program, requires acceptance of doping as a problem by sport organizations, athletes, and public authorities. Individual stakeholders must be prepared to preserve the values of sport, which means free from doping. This will require vigilance by all interested parties for the benefit of elite athletes and society overall.
Drugi rad je iz oblasti terapeutskog izuzeća pod nazivom “Therapeutical use exemptions of elite athletes – glucocorticoid use and abuse” i obrađuje 150 TUE koji su do sada prijavljeni ADAS i problem korišćenja kortikosteroida u terapiji raznih mišićnoskeletnih poremećaja kod sportista.
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THERAPEUTICAL USE EXEMPTIONS OF ELITE ATHLETES – GLUCOCORTICOID USE AND ABUSE
Andjelkovic M.¹˒², Dikic N.¹˒², Baralic I. ², Vesic Vukasinovic M. ¹˒², Antic T.²
¹ Anti-doping agency of Serbia, ²Sports Medicine Association of Serbia
Athletes may have illnesses or conditions that require to take particular medications. Use of substances from Prohibited List for medical reasons requires an approved Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE). To gain approval, an athlete must submit the appropriate application form along with substantial medical justification at least 30 days in advance of intended use.
Athletes have obligation to get approval before using any medication that can cause doping positive result. One of criteria for granting a TUE points that there is no reasonable therapeutic alternative for prohibited substance or prohibited method.
In this cross sectional study, 150 TUE applications from elite Serbian athletes were analyzed, in period of 2007. to 2012. by using official data of Anti-doping agency of Serbia (ADAS). These applications had been processed by TUE Commitee of International sports federations or ADAS.
TUE was requested from 116 athletes with average age 29.6±7.6 and men to women ratio 70:30%. More than once 16.4% athletes applyed for TUE with maximum of 5 TUE/athlete. The highest prevalence of TUE requests came from athletics (20.1%), basketball (19.5), football (12.1), archery (6%) and tenis (4.7%). The musculoskeletal disorders (80%) and asthma (14.8%) were dominant pathological conditions among Serbian athletes. Enthesitis, lumbar syndrom and lumbar disc herniation had highest prevalence among musculosceletal disorders. Only 8% applications were related to chronic diseases (diabetes, colitis ulcerosa, infertility, chronic renal insufficiency, hypertension and neoplasma). Most commonly used medicines were glucocorticosteroides (GCS) represented by 72% and salbutamol with 9.8%. Betamethasone (27.3%), dexamethasone (16.8%) and triamcinolon (14.7%) were the most frequent administrated GCS. Intramuscular (32.9%), inhalation (15.4%) and intraarticular (12.8) rouths of drug administration were mostly represented in treatment of athletes.
This study can be useful for perceiving medical conditions of elite athletes which require TUE. Low number of TUE in Serbia implies that the education of athletes and sports federations should be on a higer level. Frequent use of GCS, without valid medical indication and thinking about alternative drugs and methods that could be equally effective, can cause severe side effects leading to decreased sports performance. Since illegitimate consumption of these medicines can cause doping positive result, the importance of reporting TUE should be stressed out.
Dvorak, J., N.Feddermann and K.Grimm. 2006. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40:i48-i54